Dr. Gundry’s The Plant Paradox Is Wrong

A book purported to expose “hidden dangers” in healthy foods doesn’t even pass the whiff test.

I started getting emails about The Plant Paradox, a book purporting to expose “the hidden dangers in ‘healthy’ foods that cause disease and weight gain”—foods like beans, whole grains, and tomatoes. Hidden dangers? The author’s talking about lectins in a rehashing of the discredited Blood Type Diet from decades ago. I reviewed it a while ago in my video Blood Type Diet Debunked, but it just keeps coming back. The Plant Paradox was written by an MD, but if you’ve seen my medical school videos including Physicians May Be Missing Their Most Important Tool, you’ll know that is effectively an anti-credential when it comes to writing diet books, basically advertising to the world that they’ve likely received little or no formal training in nutrition. Dr. Atkins was, after all, a cardiologist. Even when we give the benefit of the doubt, the problem is it doesn’t even seem to pass the sniff test, as I discuss in my video Dr. Gundry’s The Plant Paradox Is Wrong.

If lectins are bad, then beans would be the worst, so bean counters would presumably find that bean eaters cut their lives short. But, the exact opposite may be true, with legumes—beans, split peas, chickpeas, and lentils—found to be perhaps “the most important dietary predictor of survival in older people” in countries around the world. As Dan Buettner pointed out in his Blue Zones work, lectin-packed foods are the “cornerstones” of the diets of all the healthiest, longest-lived populations on the planet. Plant-based diets in general and legumes, the most lectin-lush of foods, in particular are a common thread among longevity Blue Zones around the world, as you can see at 1:30 in my video.

If lectins are bad, then whole-grain consumers should be riddled with disease when in fact “whole grain intake is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease,” the number one killer of men and women, “cardiovascular disease, and total cancer, and mortality from all causes” put together. This means that people who eat whole grains tend to live longer and suffer from fewer “respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, and all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes” to boot. And, this is not only the case in population studies. As I showed in my video Can Oatmeal Help Fatty Liver Disease?, you can randomize people into whole grain interventions and prove cause-and-effect benefits. It’s the same with tomatoes. When you randomize women to a cup and a half of tomato juice or water every day, all that nightshade tomato lectin “reduces systemic inflammation” or has waist-slimming effects, reducing cholesterol as well as inflammatory mediators.

So, when people told me about The Plant Paradox, I thought to myself: Let me guess. He sells a line of lectin-blocking supplements. And, what do you know? His Lectin Shield capsules “assist your body in the fight against lectins” for only $79.95 a month. That’s only about a thousand dollars a year—a bargain for “pleasant bathroom visits.” Then, of course, there are ten other supplements for sale, so for only $8,000 or $9,000 a year, you can lick those lectins. Let’s not forget his skincare line. “Firm + Sculpt” for an extra $120 a month, which is all so much more affordable when you subscribe to his VIP club.

Look, people ask me all the time to comment on a new blog, book, or YouTube video, and I remind them that a hundred thousand peer-reviewed scientific papers on nutrition are published in the medical literature every year and we can barely keep up with those. But because people continually emailed me about this book, I decided I’d give it a chance.  He tells us to “forget everything you thought you knew was true.” (Diet books love saying that.) Okay. Ready? Chapter 1, citation 1: “Eating shellfish and egg yolks dramatically reduces total cholesterol.” What?! Egg yolks reduce cholesterol? What is this citation? I’ve linked the paper he cites on shellfish consumption so you can see it for yourself. By now, you know how these studies go. How do you show a food decreases cholesterol? Remove so much meat, cheese, and eggs that, overall, saturated fat falls—in this case, about 50 percent, as you can see at 4:15 in my video. If you cut saturated fat in half, of course cholesterol levels are going to drop. So, the researchers got a drop in cholesterol after removing meat, cheese, and egg yolks, yet that’s the paper he uses to support his statement that “egg yolks dramatically reduce[d] cholesterol.” That’s unbelievable! That’s the opposite of the truth. As you can see at 4:36 in my video, the truth is if you add egg yolks to people’s diets, their cholesterol goes up. How dare he say otherwise? What’s more, it’s not like he’s spewing some harmless foolishness, like saying the Earth is flat. Heart disease is the number one killer of men and women. His claims could actually hurt people.

So much for my giving him the benefit of the doubt.

This is an unusual article for me. I normally try to stay out of the so-called diet wars and just stick to bringing you the latest science. Roughly 100,000 papers are published on nutrition in the peer-reviewed medical literature every year, and we have a hard enough time keeping up with them, but let me know what you think: Would you like me to allocate time to more of these types of reactive discussions?

You’ll note I never really addressed Dr. Gundry’s thesis about lectins, but I do exactly that in these two videos: How to Avoid Lectin Poisoning and Are Lectins in Food Good or Bad for You?.


Here are links to the videos I alluded to in this article, if you want to learn more:

What else can tomatoes do? See Inhibiting Platelet Activation with Tomato Seeds.

One of the key reasons whole grains may be so beneficial is their effect on our good bacteria. Check out Gut Microbiome: Strike It Rich with Whole Grains and Microbiome: We Are What They Eat to learn more.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations:

Combating Air Pollution Effects with Food

There is a food that offers the best of both worlds—significantly improving our ability to detox carcinogens like diesel fumes and decreasing inflammation in our airways—all while improving our respiratory defenses against infections.

Outdoor air pollution may be the ninth leading cause of death and disability in the world, responsible for millions of deaths from lung cancer, emphysema, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infection. In the United States, living in a polluted city was associated with 16, 27, and 28 percent increases in total, cardiovascular, and lung cancer deaths, compared to living in a city with cleaner air. As well, living in a city with polluted air may lead to up to a 75 percent increase in the risk of a heart attack. “Additionally, the possibility of dying in a traffic jam is two and a half times greater in a polluted city.” No one wants to be living in a traffic jam, but it’s better than dying in one.

In addition to causing deaths, air pollution is also the cause of a number of health problems. It may not only exacerbate asthma but also increase the risk of developing asthma in the first place. These pollutants may trigger liver disease and even increase the risk of diabetes. Indeed, “even when atmospheric pollutants are within legally established limits, they can be harmful to health.” So, what can we do about it?

Paper after paper have described all the terrible things air pollution can do to us, but “most…failed to mention public policy. Therefore, while science is making great strides in demonstrating the harmful effects of atmospheric pollution on human health, public authorities are not using these data” to reduce emissions, as such measures might inconvenience the population “and, therefore, might not be politically acceptable.” We need better vehicle inspections, efficient public transport, bus lanes, bicycle lanes, and even urban tolls to help clean up the air, but, while we’re waiting for all of that, is there anything we can do to protect ourselves?

As I discuss in my video Best Food to Counter the Effects of Air Pollution, our body naturally has detoxifying enzymes, not only in our liver, but also lining our airways. Studies show that people born with less effective detox enzymes have an exaggerated allergic response to diesel exhaust, suggesting that these enzymes actively combat the inflammation caused by pollutants in the air. A significant part of the population has these substandard forms of the enzyme, but, either way, what can we do to boost the activity of whichever detoxification enzymes we do have?

One of my previous videos Prolonged Liver Function Enhancement from Broccoli investigated how broccoli can dramatically boost the activity of the detox enzymes in our liver, but what about our lungs? Researchers fed some smokers a large stalk of broccoli every day for ten days to see if it would affect the level of inflammation within their bodies. Why smokers? Smoking is so inflammatory that you can have elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels for up to 30 years after quitting, and that inflammation can start almost immediately after you start smoking, so it’s critical to never start in the first place. If you do, though, you can cut your level of that inflammation biomarker CRP nearly in half after just ten days eating a lot of broccoli. Broccoli appears to cut inflammation in nonsmokers as well, which may explain in part why eating more than two cups of broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, or other cruciferous veggies a day is associated with a 20 percent reduced risk of dying, compared to eating a third of a cup a day or less, as you can see at 3:41 in my video.

What about air pollution? We know that the cruciferous compound “is the most potent known inducer” of our detox enzymes, so most of the research has been on its ability to fight cancer. But, for the first time, researchers tried to see if it could combat the pro-inflammatory impact of pollutants, such as diesel exhaust. They put some human lung lining cells in a petri dish, and, as you can see at 4:11 in my video, the number of detox enzymes produced after dripping on some broccoli goodness skyrocketed. Yes, but we don’t inhale broccoli or snort it. We eat it. Can it still get into our lungs and help? Yes. After two days of broccoli sprout consumption, researchers took some cells out of the subjects’ noses and found up to 100 times more detox enzyme expression compared to eating a non-cruciferous vegetable, alfalfa sprouts. If only we could squirt some diesel exhaust up people’s noses. That’s just what some UCLA researchers did, at an amount equal to daily rush hour exposure on a Los Angeles freeway. Within six hours, the number of inflammatory cells in their nose shot up and continued to rise. But, in the group who had been getting a broccoli sprout extract, the inflammation went down and stayed down, as you can see at 4:58 in my video

Since the dose in those studies is equivalent to the consumption of one or two cups of broccoli, their study “demonstrates the potential preventive and therapeutic potential of broccoli or broccoli sprouts,” but if broccoli is so powerful at suppressing this inflammatory immune response, might it interfere with normal immune function? After all, the battle with viruses like influenza can happen in the nose. So what happens when some flu viruses are dripped into the nostrils of broccoli-sprout eaters compared with people consuming non-cruciferous alfalfa sprouts? After eating broccoli sprouts, we get the best of both worlds—less inflammation and an improved immune response. As you can see at 5:55 in my video, after eating alfalfa sprouts, there is a viral spike in their nose. After eating a package of broccoli sprouts every day, however, our body is able to keep the virus in check, potentially offering “a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations.”

So, better immune function, yet less inflammation, potentially reducing the impact of pollution on allergic disease and asthma, at least for an “enthusiastic broccoli consumer.” But what about cancer and detoxifying air pollutants throughout the rest of our body? We didn’t know, until now. Off to China, where “levels of outdoor air pollution…are among the highest in the world.” By day one, those getting broccoli sprouts were able to get rid of 60 percent more benzene from their bodies. “The key finding…was the observed rapid and highly durable elevation of the detoxification of… a known human carcinogen.” Now, this was using broccoli sprouts, which are highly concentrated, equivalent to about five cups of broccoli a day, so we don’t know how well more modest doses would work. But if they do, eating broccoli could “provide a frugal means to attenuate…the long-term health risks” of air pollution. More on air pollution here.

I’ve been reading about the terrible effects of air pollution for a long time and I am thrilled there’s something we can do other than uprooting our families and moving out to the countryside.


For more on cruciferocity, see my videos Lung Cancer Metastases and Broccoli and Breast Cancer Survival Vegetable.

There’s a secret to maximizing broccoli’s benefits. See Flashback Friday:Second Strategy to Cooking Broccoli.

For more on Cooking Greens: How to Cook Greens and Best Way to Cook Vegetables.

What about broccoli sprout pills? See Broccoli: Sprouts vs. Supplements.

Speaking of respiratory inflammation, what about dietary approaches to asthma? Learn more:

There are sources of indoor pollution, too. See Throw Household Products Off the Scent.

There is one way what we eat can directly impact air pollution, beyond just personal protection. Check out Flashback Friday: Diet and Climate Change: Cooking Up a Storm.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations:

Boosting Antiviral Immune Function with Green Tea

Unlike most antiviral drugs, green tea appears to work by boosting the immune system to combat diseases such as genital warts (caused by HPV) and the flu (caused by the influenza virus).

According to one study, “The belief in green tea as a ‘wonder weapon’ against diseases dates back thousands of years.” I’ve talked about it in relation to chronic disease, but what about infectious disease? I explore this in my video Benefits of Green Tea for Boosting Antiviral Immune Function. Interest in the antimicrobial activity of tea dates back to a military medical journal in 1906, which suggested that servicemen fill their canteens with tea to kill off the bugs that caused typhoid fever. “However, this effect of tea was not studied further until the late 1980s” when tea compounds were pitted against viruses and bacteria in test tubes and petri dishes, but what we care about is whether it works in people. I had dismissed this entire field of inquiry as clinically irrelevant until I learned about tea’s affect on genital warts. External genital warts, caused by human wart viruses, “are one of the most common and fastest-spreading venereal diseases worldwide.”

Patients with external genital warts “present with one or several cauliflower-like growths on the genitals and/or anal regions…associated with…considerable impairment of patients’ emotional and sexual well-being.” But rub on some green tea ointment, and you can achieve complete clearance of all warts in more than 50 percent of cases.

If it works so well for wart viruses, what about flu viruses? As you can see at 1:41 in my video, it works great in a petri dish, but what about in people? Well, tea-drinking school children seem to be protected, but you don’t know about the broader population until it’s put to the test. If you give healthcare workers green tea compounds, they come down with the flu about three times less often than those given placebo, as you can see at 2:02 in my video. In fact, just gargling with green tea may help. While a similar effect was not found in high school students, gargling with green tea may drop the risk of influenza infection seven or eight-fold compared to gargling with water in elderly residents of a nursing home, where flu can get really serious.

Unlike antiviral drugs, green tea appears to work by boosting the immune system, enhancing the proliferation and activity of gamma delta T cells, a type of immune cell that acts as “a first line defense against infection.” According to the researchers, “Subjects who drank six cups of tea per day had up to a 15-fold increase in [infection-fighting] interferon gamma production in as little as one week”—but why?

There is in fact a molecular pattern shared by cancer cells, pathogens, and “edible plant products such as tea, apples, mushrooms, and wine.” So, eating healthy foods may help maintain our immune cells on ready alert, effectively priming our gamma delta T cells so they “then can provide natural resistance to microbial infections and perhaps tumors.” I guess I shouldn’t have been so surprised; tea, after all, is a “vegetable infusion.” You’re basically drinking a hot water extraction of a dark green leafy vegetable.


For more on what green tea can (and cannot) do, check out videos such as:

How else can we improve our immune function? See, for example:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations: