Decreasing Inflammation and Oxidation After Meals

Within hours of eating an unhealthy meal, we can get a spike in inflammation, crippling our artery function, thickening our blood, and causing a fight-or-flight nerve response. Thankfully, there are foods we can eat at every meal to counter this reaction.

Standard American meals rich in processed junk and meat and dairy lead to exaggerated spikes in sugar and fat in the blood, as you can see at 0:13 in my video How to Prevent Blood Sugar and Triglyceride Spikes after Meals. This generates free radicals, and the oxidative stress triggers a biochemical cascade throughout our circulation, damaging proteins in our body, inducing inflammation, crippling our artery function, thickening our blood, and causing a fight-or-flight nerve response. This all happens within just one to four hours after eating a meal. Worried about inflammation within your body? One lousy breakfast could double your C-reactive protein levels before it’s even lunchtime.

Repeat that three times a day, and you can set yourself up for heart disease. You may not even be aware of how bad off you are because your doctor is measuring your blood sugar and fat levels while you’re in a fasting state, typically drawing your blood before you’ve eaten. What happens after a meal may be a stronger predictor of heart attacks and strokes, which makes sense, since this is where most of us live our lives—that is, in a fed state. And it’s not just in diabetics. As you can see at 1:30 in my video, if you follow non diabetic women with heart disease but normal fasting blood sugar, how high their blood sugar spikes after chugging some sugar water appears to determine how fast their arteries continue to clog up, perhaps because the higher the blood sugars spike, the more free radicals are produced.

So, what are some dietary strategies to improve the situation? Thankfully, “improvements in diet exert profound and immediate favorable changes…,” but what kind of improvements? “Specifically, a diet high in minimally processed, high-fiber, plant-based foods such as vegetables and fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nuts,”—antioxidant, anti-inflammatory whole plant foods—“will markedly blunt the post-meal increase” in sugar, fat, and inflammation.

But what if you really wanted to eat some Wonder Bread? As you can see at 2:23 in my video, you’d get a big spike in blood sugar less than an hour after eating it. Would it make a difference if you spread the bread with almond butter? Adding about a third of a cup of almonds to the same amount of Wonder Bread significantly blunts the blood sugar spike.

In that case, would any low-carb food help? Why add almond butter when you can make a bologna sandwich? Well, first of all, plant-based foods have the antioxidants to wipe out any excess free radicals. So, nuts can not only blunt blood sugar spikes, but oxidative damage as well. What’s more, they can even blunt insulin spikes. Indeed, adding nuts to a meal calms both blood sugar levels and insulin levels, as you can see at 3:02 in my video. Now, you’re probably thinking, Well, duh, less sugar means less insulin, but that’s not what happens with low-carb animal foods.

As you can see at 3:23 in my video, if you add steamed skinless chicken breast to your white rice, you get a greater insulin spike than if you had just eaten the white rice alone. So, adding the low-carb plant food made things better, but adding the low-carb animal food made things worse. It’s the same with adding chicken breast to mashed potatoes—a higher insulin spike with the added animal protein. It is also the same with animal fat: Add some butter to a meal, and get a dramatically higher insulin spike from some sugar, as you can see at 3:45 in my video.

If you add butter and cheese to white bread, white potatoes, white spaghetti, or white rice, you can sometimes even double the insulin reaction. If you add half an avocado to a meal, however, instead of worsening, the insulin response improves, as it does with the main whole plant food source of fat: nuts.


I’ve covered the effect adding berries to a meal has on blood sugar responses in If Fructose Is Bad, What About Fruit?, and that raises the question: How Much Fruit Is Too Much?

In addition to the all-fruit jam question, I cover The Effects of Avocados and Red Wine on Postprandial Inflammation.

Vinegar may also help. See Can Vinegar Help with Blood Sugar Control?.

Perhaps this explains part of the longevity benefit to nut consumption, which I discuss in Nuts May Help Prevent Death.

I also talk about that immediate inflammatory reaction to unhealthy food choices in Best Foods to Improve Sexual Function.

Surprised by the chicken and butter reaction? The same thing happens with tuna fish and other meat, as I cover in my video Paleo Diets May Negate Benefits of Exercise.

Also check:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations:

 

Chia Seeds vs. Flaxseeds

 

What effect do chia seeds have on weight loss, blood sugar, cholesterol, blood pressure, and inflammation?

We’ve been eating chia seeds for more than 5,000 years. Historically, they are one of the main crops grown in the Western hemisphere. They are exceptionally high in fiber and omega-3 fatty acids, though, like flaxseeds, it’s better to grind them up. As you can see at 0:26 in my video Which Are Better: Chia Seeds or Flaxseeds?, eating two tablespoons of whole chia seeds every day for ten weeks led to no change in omega-3 levels, but consuming the same amount of ground chia seeds did lead to a significant increase in blood levels of both short-chain and long-chain omega 3s. “Ingestion of…milled chia seed compared to whole chia seed or placebo… appeared to have no influence on inflammation or disease risk factors,” though. As well, there was no change in body fat, blood sugar, cholesterol, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, or any of the other markers of inflammation, as you can see at 0:47 in my video.

An earlier study purported to show a significant reduction in C-reactive protein levels (an indicator of systemic inflammation), compared to control. However, if you look closely at the data, you see that was only because there was a significant worsening in the placebo group who had been given a couple of tablespoons of wheat bran a day instead of chia. So it’s not that the chia group got significantly better; the control group just got significantly worse, as you can see at 1:22 in my video.

Whenever researchers appear to be exaggerating their results, that’s a red flag to check their funding source. In this case, they didn’t disclose any conflicts of interest. Five years later, however, the truth came out. The study was indeed funded by a chia company. Furthermore, the lead investigator had filed a patent to use chia seeds to treat diseases. Why wasn’t any of this disclosed when the study was originally published? Because the journal’s “conflict-of-interest policy did not specifically require the disclosure of such information.”

Regardless, the “patent has since been abandoned,” likely because subsequent studies found no significant benefits for weight loss, blood sugar, cholesterol, blood pressure, or inflammation after eating a quarter cup of chia seeds a day for three months, as you can see at 2:16 in my video. The original study, however, did show a significant drop in blood pressure, which was replicated by other researchers.

More potent effects have been found with ground flaxseeds, though. The primary reason I prefer flaxseeds over chia seeds is their lignan content, which averages about 15 times more than other seeds, including sesame and chia. This is thought to explain the anti-cancer effects of flaxseeds for both prevention and survival.

Still, chia seeds are certainly better than eggs and oil. By mixing one part chia seeds and nine parts water and letting it sit, you can create a chia gel that can be used as an egg or oil replacer in baked goods.

Who grinds chia seeds? Were you as surprised by that as I was?

For an update about the potential of chia seeds for weight loss, check out Do Chia Seeds Help with Belly Fat?


You can learn more about flax seeds and cancer from my videos, including:

To find out more about what flax seeds can do, check out:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations:

Mad Cow Disease and Cosmetics

As I discuss in my video Which Intestines for Food and Cosmetics?, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently reopened comments about its policy of allowing some intestines, but not others, into the U.S. food supply. When the first few cases of mad cow disease started popping up, the FDA’s gut reaction was to ban all guts from food and personal care products. Then, in 2005, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and FDA amended their draft rule to “permit the use of the entire small intestine for human food” if the last 80 uncoiled inches going to the colon is removed. Since then, however, studies have shown that infectious mad cow prions can be found throughout all parts of the intestine, from the stomach down to the cow’s colon, raising the question of whether all entrails should be removed once again from the food supply.

The North American Meat Association said no, wanting to keep cattle insides inside the food supply. Similarly, the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA, now the Personal Care Products Council) protested the concern, arguing that banning downer and dead cattle, as well as their brains, skulls, eyes, spinal cords, intestines, and tonsils, could put our nation’s supply of cosmetics in jeopardy. There could be a tallow shortage for soap, for example. The FDA may not realize that cosmetics and personal care products are a quarter trillion-dollar industry worldwide.

In the end, the FDA “tentatively” concluded that intestines should continue to be allowed in the food and cosmetic supply because “[o]nly trace amounts of infectivity have been found” throughout the bowels of cattle. The agency had to come to that conclusion because, otherwise, the meat would have to be banned as well. Indeed, new research shows there’s mad cow infectivity in the animals’ muscles, too, and not just in the atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), like the last mad cow found in California. We now know it’s in typical BSE as well: Low levels of infectious prions have also been found in the ribs, shoulders, tenderloins, sirloin tips, and round cuts of meat.

The latest estimates from Britain suggest 15,000 people are currently incubating the human form of mad cow disease, contracted through the consumption of infected meat. Fewer than 200 Brits have died so far of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but the incubation period for this invariably fatal neurodegenerative disease—that is, the time between eating the meat and one’s brain filling up with holes—can be decades. The fact that so many people are carrying it has important implications for the safety of blood transfusions, which is why many Americans who’ve lived in England are barred by the Red Cross from donating blood. Also at risk is the safety of handling surgical instruments that may have cut into someone who’s a carrier, as it is so difficult to sterilize anything once it’s been contaminated.

Given these factors, it may be prudent to err on the side of caution when regulating which intestines are allowed on and in our mouths, but it’s a balance. As one meat company pointed out, guts are not just used for lipstick—intestines are human food, “providing us with a precious source of protein which is essential for our human population.”


Unfortunately, this is not the first time the FDA has caved to industry pressures. See, for example:

As scary as rare infections like mad cow disease are, we are much more likely to be disabled or killed by more conventional foodborne pathogens such as bacteria. Check out:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations: