70% Taking Common Antidepressants Suffer Sexual Side Effects

What’s the latest on treating depression with the spice saffron? Years ago, I covered a head-to-head comparison of saffron versus Prozac for the treatment of depression in my video Saffron vs. Prozac, and saffron seemed to work just as well as the drug. In the years since, five other studies have found that saffron beat out placebo or rivaled antidepressant medications.

It may be the spice’s red pigment, crocin, since that alone beat out placebo as an adjunct treatment, significantly decreasing symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, and general psychological distress. Perhaps, its antioxidants played a role in “preventing free radical-induced damage in the brain.” The amount of crocin the researchers used was equivalent to about a half teaspoon of saffron a day.

If the spice works as well as the drugs, one could argue that the spice wins, since it doesn’t cause sexual dysfunction in the majority of men and women like most prescribed antidepressants do. SSRI drugs like Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft cause “adverse sexual side effects” in around 70 percent of people taking them. What’s more, physicians not only significantly underestimate the occurrence of side effects, but they also tend to underrate how much they impact the lives of their patients.

Not only is this not a problem with saffron, the spice may even be able to treat it, as I explore in my video Best Food for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction. “In folk medicine, there is a widely held belief that saffron might have aphrodisiac effects.” To test this, men with Prozac-induced sexual impairment were randomized to saffron or placebo for a month. By week four, the saffron group “resulted in significantly greater improvement in erectile function…and intercourse satisfaction,” and more than half of the men in the saffron group regained “normal erectile function.” The researchers concluded that saffron is an “efficacious treatment” for Prozac-related erectile dysfunction. It has all been found to be effective for female sexual dysfunction, as well, as you can see at 2:35 in my video. Female sexual function increased by week four, improving some of the Prozac-induced sexual problems but not others. So, it may be better to try saffron in the first place for the depression and avoid developing these sexual dysfunction problems, since they sometimes can persist even after stopping the drugs, potentially worsening one’s long-term depression prognosis.

This includes unusual side effects, such as genital anesthesia, where you literally lose sensation. It can happen in men and women. More rarely, antidepressants can induce a condition called restless genital syndrome. You’ve heard of restless legs syndrome? Well, this is a restless between-the-legs syndrome. These PSSDs, or Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunctions, meaning dysfunctions that appear or persist after stopping taking these antidepressants, can be so serious that “prescribing physicians should mention the potential danger of the occurrence of genital (e.g., penile or vaginal) anesthesia to every patient prior to any SSRI treatment.” If you’re on one of these drugs, did your doctor warn you about that?

All hope is not lost, though. Evidently, penile anesthesia responds to low-power laser irradiation. After 20 laser treatments to his penis, one man, who had lost his penile sensation thanks to the drug Paxil, partially regained his “penile touch and temperature sensation.” However, he still couldn’t perform to his girlfriend’s satisfaction, and she evidently ended up leaving him over it, which certainly didn’t help his mood. But, before you feel too badly for him, compare a little penile light therapy to clitoridectomy, clitoris removal surgery, or another Paxil-related case where a woman’s symptoms only improved after six courses of electroshock therapy.

Pass the paella!


For more on the spice, check out:

Those drug side effects sound devastating, but depression is no walk in the park. However, when one balances risk and benefit, one assumes that there are actually benefits to taking them. That’s why the shocking science I explored in Do Antidepressant Drugs Really Work? is so important.

What else may boost mood? A healthy diet and exercise:

For more on sexual health generally, see:

What else can spices do? Here’s just a taste:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations:

Topical Green Tea for Acne and Fungal Infections

Which plant should we use for which skin disease? That’s the topic of my video Natural Treatment for Acne and Fungal Infections. Thousands of studies have been published to date about the health effects of green tea, but it wasn’t until fairly recently that researchers began to look at the possibility of using green tea for the prevention and treatment of infections. Patents have been taken out on the antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties of tea. Let’s review some of the evidence.

In terms of fungal infections, green tea compounds have demonstrated “potent antifungal activity” against the primary cause of athlete’s foot, fungal nail infections, jock itch, and ringworm—comparable, in some cases, to powerful antifungal drugs like fluconazole. This was shown in a petri dish, though. How about a green tea footbath for athlete’s foot fungus between the toes? Evidently, tea leaves were once used as a folk remedy for the fungus, so why not put it to the test? Indeed, a once-a-day, 15-minute dilute green tea footbath led to a significant improvement in symptoms compared to controls.

Green tea baths also appeared to help with fungus-associated atopic dermatitis, though there was no control group in that study, and a full-strength green tea may help clear candida yeast from poorly cleaned dentures. What about the bacteria that cause plaque and gingivitis? Even a 2% green tea mouthwash was found to be effective. Yes, you should be able to control plaque just with proper brushing and flossing—with an emphasis on “proper.” Most people don’t brush for the recommended four minutes a day, so a dilute green tea mouthwash may help.

In terms of plaque bacteria-killing ability, green tea was beaten out by a “garlic with lime mouth rinse,” but I think I’ll just stick to green tea, especially when green tea appears to not only kill plaque bugs directly but also boost the antibacterial capacity of saliva after you drink it.

What about green tea for acne? Six weeks of a 2% green tea lotion cut the number of pimples by more than half and significantly reduced the severity, as you can see at 2:48 in my video, making it a cheap, effective treatment for acne.

Impetigo is another bacterial skin infection that can affect the face, but a tea ointment can affect an 80 percent cure rate, on par with antibiotics given topically or orally.

What about bladder infections? We know a certain concentration of green tea compounds can kill the type of E. coli that causes urinary tract infections. The question then becomes how much tea do you have to drink to achieve those concentrations in your bladder? Not much, it turns out. Just one cup of tea might have an effect, but you may need to space out multiple cups over the day because it gets cleared out of your system within about eight hours, as you can see at 3:45 in my video.

So, where do we stand now? The test tube data look promising, but there has yet to be a single study to put it to the test. At this point, green tea should just be used as an adjunct therapy for bladder infections. But, with emerging multidrug-resistant organisms, green tea certainly holds potential.

Wait a moment. If green tea is so good at killing bacteria, might we be killing the good bacteria in our gut when we drink it? No. That’s what’s so amazing. “It has also been shown that green tea has no effect over intestinal flora, which is a great advantage against other bactericidal [bacteria-killing] agents.” But that may not actually be true. Drinking green tea may actually boost the levels of our good bacteria by acting as a prebiotic, thereby improving the colon environment, so it may actually have some effect on our gut flora after all, but it appears to be all good.


Drinking tea with meals may impair iron absorption, so it’s better to drink it between meals. For more on green tea, one of my favorite beverages, along with water and hibiscus tea, see:

For more on acne, check out:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations:

Topical Lemon Balm Lotion for Alzheimer’s

Improving cognitive performance with aromatherapy in young, healthy volunteers is one thing, but how about where it really matters? As I discuss in my video Best Aromatherapy Herb for Alzheimer’s, a group of Japanese researchers had a pie-in-the-sky notion that certain smells could lead to “nerve rebirth” in Alzheimer’s patients. Twenty years ago, even simply raising such a possibility as a hypothetical was heretical. Everybody knew that the loss of neurons is irreversible. In other words, dead nerve cells are not replaced, an important factor in neurodegenerative diseases. That’s what I was taught and what everyone was taught, until 1998.

Patients with advanced cancer volunteered to be injected with a special dye that’s incorporated into the DNA of new cells. On autopsy, researchers then went hunting for nerve cells that lit up in the brains. And, as you can see at 1:14 in my video, there they were: new nerve cells in the brain that didn’t exist just days or months before, demonstrating “that cell genesis occurs in human brains and that the human brain retains the potential for self-renewal throughout life”—something in which we can take comfort.

It still doesn’t mean smells can help, though. An aromatherapy regimen of rosemary, lemon, lavender, and orange essential oils was attempted for a month. At 1:43 in my video, you can see the trajectory of the subjects’ cognitive function and their ability to form abstract ideas starting six weeks before the treatment. Prior to the aromatherapy regimen, there was a rather steady decline, which was reversed after the aromatherapy. The researchers concluded that aromatherapy may be efficacious and “have some potential for improving cognitive function, especially in AD [Alzheimer’s disease] patients”—all, of course, without any apparent side effects.

What about severe dementia? We always hear about the cognitive deficits, but more than half of patients with dementia experience behavioral or psychiatric symptoms. Thorazine-type antipsychotic drugs are often prescribed, even though they appear to be particularly dangerous in the elderly. “Antipsychotic medication may be viewed as an easier option than non pharmacological alternatives,” such as aromatherapy. Another study examined the effect of rubbing a lemon balm-infused lotion on the arms and face of patients twice daily by caregiving staff, compared with lotion without the scent. “During the 4 weeks, significant improvements were seen” in agitation, shouting, screaming, and physical aggression, as were improved quality of life indicators, with patients less socially withdrawn and more engaged in constructive activities, compared to the unscented control. This is important because antipsychotics cause patients to become more withdrawn and less engaged. They are like a chemical restraint. The drugs can reduce agitation, too. So, aromatherapy with lemon balm “is safe, well tolerated, and highly efficacious, with additional benefits on key quality of life parameters.”

These findings clearly indicate the need for longer-term multicenter trials,” but we never had any, until…never. We still don’t have any. This study was conducted in 2002, and there have been no follow-ups. Is that a surprise? Who’s going to fund such a study: Big Balm?

I’ve produced one other video on lemon balm: Reducing Radiation Damage with Ginger and Lemon Balm. We grow lemon balm in our garden. It makes a delicious tea. Give it a try!


For more on the potential (and limitations) of aromatherapy, check out:

It’s better, of course, to prevent dementia in the first place. Learn more:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations: